The Battle of Hattin (also known as The Horns of Hattin because of a nearby extinct volcano of the same name) took place on Saturday, July 4, 1187, between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of the Ayyubid dynasty.
The Muslim armies under Saladin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces, removing their capability to wage war. As a direct result of the battle, Islamic forces once again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, reconquering Jerusalem and several other Western-held cities
Reynald de Chatillon and the Knights Templar hated Saladin. So Reynald, with his men, attack a Saracen caravan. The Saracens had no protection against the Templars. No one was spared. One of causiltes was Saladin's sister. After the attack, Saladin sent two messangers to demand the return of his sister's body. Guy killed one of them. in response, Saladin declared war against Guy and Reynald.
King Guy and Reynald gathered their forces to meet Saladin in battle. In his haste, he didn't stop to think about stops for water. So, in the march all the men were dehydrated. Some of them died from thirst. When the Christain army reached the mountains of Hattin, they found a lake that would quench their thirst. However, the lake was guarded by Saladin's men. In their desperation, they charged at Muslim forces. The exuasted christains didn't stand a chance aginst fully well armed and fully strong Muslim forces. To weaken the enemy forces more, Saladin set a fire around the Christain forces. The fire caused the Christains to become more dehydrated. As a final attack on the Christains, Saladin had his archers shoot them down.
Notes and references
- Tyerman, Christopher. God's War: A New History Of The Crusades. London: Penguin Books, 2007.
King Guy de Lusignan (Brother-in-law to former King of Jerusalem, Baldwin IV) was eager to show his strength against the Saracens and prove could fill in Baldwin's place as King of Jerusslem.
After the battle, Guy and Reynald were taken prisoner to Saladin. Guy complained that his throat was dry and very thirsty. Saladin gave Guy a goblet of water. After a few sips, Guy gave tthe cup to Reynald. (In Muslim culture, you had to ask permission to do anything. So when Guy gave the water to Reynald, it insulted Saladin). Saladin then took a knife and slit Reynald's throat. He then took his sword and decapitated Reynald's head right in font of King Guy.